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Walmart Business Model: How Walmart Makes Money?

Walmart Inc., the retail giant founded by Sam Walton in 1962, has transformed the retail industry with its innovative business model. With over 10,500 stores across 19 countries, Walmart has become the largest supermarket chain in the United States. Its success can be attributed to its unique approach to pricing, access, assortment, and customer experience. In this article, we will explore the key elements of Walmart's business model and how it has propelled the company to its position as a global leader in the retail industry.

Walmart Business Model

A Brief History of Walmart

Walmart's journey began in 1962 when Sam Walton opened the first Walmart store in Arkansas, USA. Recognizing the potential of the retail market, Walton strategically positioned Walmart as a discount store for suburban and rural customers, differentiating itself from competitors who focused on urban markets. By 1967, Walmart had expanded to 24 stores in Arkansas and achieved over $12 million in sales. This success paved the way for further expansion, and in 1972, Walmart went public.

Over the years, Walmart continued to innovate and expand its operations. In 1983, the company introduced Sam's Club, a membership-only warehouse club that offers a wide range of products at discounted prices. In 1991, Walmart opened its first international store in Mexico, marking the beginning of its global expansion. Today, Walmart operates in 19 countries and serves millions of customers worldwide.

Walmart's Mission Statement

Walmart's mission statement, "Saving people money so they can live better" encapsulates the company's commitment to providing affordable products to its customers. This mission has been the driving force behind Walmart's business model and has shaped its strategies and operations.

Walmart's Business Model - Customer Segments

Walmart serves a diverse range of customer segments, including individual customers and businesses. The company's customer base primarily consists of middle-income and lower-income families who are looking for quality products at affordable prices. Additionally, Walmart's membership-only warehouse club, Sam's Club, caters to middle and upper-income groups.

Walmart's Value Propositions

Walmart's value propositions revolve around offering a wide variety of products at the lowest possible prices. The company achieves this by leveraging its massive network of suppliers and purchasing goods in large volumes, enabling it to negotiate the best prices.

Walmart's focus on low prices has made it a preferred choice for budget-conscious customers, reinforcing its value proposition.

In addition to competitive pricing, Walmart differentiates itself by providing convenient access to its products. The company operates various store formats, including Walmart Discount Stores, Walmart Supercenters, and Walmart Neighborhood Markets, catering to different customer needs.

Furthermore, Walmart has invested heavily in its e-commerce capabilities, allowing customers to shop online and have products delivered to their doorstep. The company operates various e-commerce websites, including, Sam's Club, and Flipkart (in India), enabling customers to shop online and have products delivered to their homes. Walmart's mobile app further enhances the shopping experience by allowing customers to browse products, check prices, and make purchases from their smartphones.

How Walmart Makes Money?

Walmart generates revenue through various sources, primarily retail sales. The company sells a wide range of products, including groceries, electronics, apparel, toys, and home furnishings, both in its physical stores and through its e-commerce channels. Retail sales account for the majority of Walmart's revenue.

Walmart's annual revenue for 2023 was $611.289 billion, a 6.73% increase from 2022.

In addition to retail sales, Walmart also generates revenue from services such as financial services (money orders, transfers, check cashing), VUDU movie streaming, clinical services (preventive health checks), and health insurance. These service offerings provide additional revenue streams for the company.

Walmart's Key Resources and Activities

Walmart's key resources include its extensive network of physical stores, distribution and storage systems, e-commerce infrastructure, and human resources. The company's physical stores serve as key touchpoints for customers, providing a tangible shopping experience. Walmart's distribution and storage systems ensure efficient supply chain management, enabling products to reach stores and customers in a timely manner.

Walmart's e-commerce infrastructure, including its websites and mobile app, plays a crucial role in reaching customers in the digital space. These digital platforms allow customers to browse and purchase products online, driving additional revenue for the company. Finally, Walmart's dedicated team of employees, which numbers over 2.1 million, contributes to the company's success through their expertise and commitment to customer satisfaction.

Walmart's Key Partnerships

Walmart's key partnerships include its relationships with suppliers, manufacturers, and distributors. These partnerships are instrumental in ensuring a steady supply of products and maintaining competitive pricing. Walmart has built a vast network of suppliers, allowing it to negotiate favorable terms and secure the best prices for its customers.

Additionally, Walmart has formed strategic partnerships with technology companies to enhance its e-commerce capabilities.

For example, the company partnered with Microsoft to leverage its cloud computing services, enabling faster and more efficient online transactions.

These partnerships contribute to Walmart's ability to provide a seamless and robust shopping experience for its customers.

Walmart's Cost Structure

Walmart's cost structure is driven by its commitment to offering the lowest possible prices to customers. The company employs various strategies to keep costs in check, including bulk purchasing, efficient supply chain management, and cost-effective store operations. Walmart's scale and bargaining power allow it to negotiate favorable terms with suppliers, further reducing costs.

While Walmart's cost structure is optimized for efficiency, the company also invests in its employees' welfare. Walmart has implemented initiatives to improve employee compensation and training, ensuring a motivated and skilled workforce. These investments contribute to the overall success of the business and help maintain a high level of customer service.

Walmart's Competitors

Walmart faces competition from both traditional retailers and e-commerce businesses. Key competitors include Target Corp, Costco, Dollar General, Dollar Tree, Family Dollar, Kroger, Amazon, Best Buy, and BJ's Wholesale Holdings. These competitors offer similar products and services, and they constantly strive to attract customers with competitive pricing, convenience, and a compelling customer experience.

Despite intense competition, Walmart maintains its position as a market leader through its focus on low prices, extensive product range, and customer-centric approach. The company's scale and operational efficiency give it a competitive advantage, enabling it to offer products at affordable prices while maintaining profitability.

Walmart's Strengths and Weaknesses

Walmart's strengths lie in its extensive physical presence, global supply chain, and unmatched purchasing power. The company's vast network of stores allows it to reach a wide customer base, while its supply chain and purchasing power enable it to offer competitive prices. Walmart's brand recognition and customer loyalty further contribute to its strengths.

However, Walmart also faces challenges and weaknesses. The company has been criticized for its labor practices and employee compensation in the past. Additionally, the intense competition in the retail industry poses a threat to Walmart's market share. The company must continuously adapt and innovate to stay ahead in a rapidly changing retail landscape.


Walmart's business model has revolutionized the retail industry, making it the largest supermarket chain in the United States and a global leader in the retail space. By focusing on low prices, convenient access, a wide assortment of products, and exceptional customer experience, Walmart has attracted millions of customers worldwide.

The company's commitment to its mission of "Saving people money so they can live better" has guided its strategies and operations, driving its success. With its extensive physical presence, e-commerce capabilities, and strong supplier partnerships, Walmart continues to shape the retail industry and provide value to its customers.

As Walmart looks to the future, it will face evolving challenges and opportunities. By leveraging its strengths, addressing its weaknesses, and staying true to its core values, Walmart is well-positioned to maintain its leadership in the retail industry and continue delivering value to its customers worldwide.


How many stores does Walmart have?

Walmart operates over 10,500 stores worldwide, including hypermarkets, supermarkets, and department stores, under various banners in 19 countries.

What is Walmart's revenue?

Walmart's annual revenue for 2023 was $611.289 billion, a 6.73% increase from 2022.

Who are Walmart's competitors?

Walmart faces competition from various retailers, including Target, Costco, Dollar General, Dollar Tree, Kroger, Amazon, and Best Buy.

How does Walmart make money?

Walmart generates revenue primarily through retail sales, including groceries, electronics, apparel, and more. The company also earns revenue from services such as financial services, movie streaming, clinical services, and health insurance.

What is Walmart's cost structure?

Walmart's cost structure is optimized for efficiency, with a focus on reducing costs through bulk purchasing, efficient supply chain management, and cost-effective store operations.

What are Walmart's revenue streams?

Walmart's revenue streams primarily come from retail sales, including groceries, electronics, apparel, and more. The company also earns revenue from various services.

How does Walmart engage with customers?

Walmart engages with customers through its physical stores, e-commerce channels, and customer service initiatives. The company strives to provide a seamless and exceptional shopping experience.

What is Walmart's market capitalization?

As of December 2023, Walmart's market capitalization is approximately $415.41 billion.

What are Walmart's future opportunities and challenges?

Walmart's future opportunities lie in expanding its international presence, strengthening its e-commerce capabilities, and innovating in a rapidly changing retail landscape. The company faces challenges such as labor practices, intense competition, and evolving customer expectations.

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